Howard Gardner of Harvard University has transformed the view of intelligence from fixed and narrow in scope to a more inclusive conceptualization. His theory of Multiple Intelligences now includes the following domains:
The ability to perceive, create and manipulate objects, shapes, contrasts, detail, balance, etc. is demonstrated in this domain. This can include visualization as well as physically arranging materials and compositions.
This domain is activated through movement. One may express it through skillful use of the whole body, such as in dance or acting. Fine motor skills may show kinesthetic abilities as demonstrated in surgery or craft creation.
The ability to create, inform, convince or express using language connotates verbal intelligence. Written or spoken words are used effectively. Orators, writers, religious leaders and teachers eloquenty use this domain.
The love of music and abilities such as composing, singing or playing music demonstrate sesitivity and skill in this domain. Musical perfomance, improvization as well as deep appreciation utilize this intelligence.
5. Logical and Mathematical
Mathematical intelligence involves the ability to calculate or perceive mathematical relationships. This includes orderly exploration or sequencing of patterns. It can also be seen in the logical manipulation of ideas or objects. Logical and mathematical intelligence is exhibited by scientists, mathematicians and logic-based philosophers.
The ability to get along with, care for and understand people is expressed through interpersonal intelligence. Knowing how to relate to people and to empathize is an important gift in all cultures. Great social leaders such as those who inspire thousands, as well as teachers and counselors, possess a particular strength in this domain.
Self knowledge, the awareness and understanding of one's feelings, values, abilities, priorities, etc. is intrapersonal intelligence. Reflective writers, artists and those seeking personal growth on all levels develop these abilities well.
This intelligence is demonstrated by the ability to make and justify distinctions in the natural world. When developed, these abilities can help one identify or classify details, types, and patterns in varied contexts. It can involve seeing relationships between natural species and processes. An inclination in this domain could lead to a deep appreciation of nature and a desire to investigate or protect it.
This intelligence recently discussed by Gardner (1999) addresses life’s big questions. These “ultimate” issues include: Why are we here? What is my purpose? and Where are we going? What is the meaning of life and death? It is seen in the ability to love or experience a sense of transcendence, flow, or deep wonder. This domain is an important dimension of human experience according to Gardner, yet he has not added it to the established eight areas of intelligence.